I visited a Cambridge client last week and, as is often the case, the conversation turned towards their next set of creative work. They were seeking to create some leaflets for a conference and also a redevelopment of their website. Sounds great, and as tempting as it sounded to jump straight in I declined to quote at that moment. The reason was quite simple. At that point and even after a short cursory conversation, they couldn't really tell me what they a) needed them for b) needed them to do c) what the desired outcome would be. Although it does, it shouldn't surprise me that people who are charged with commissioning work haven't considered why they need the output. A short analysis of WHO WHAT WHERE WHEN and WHY would make life a lot easier and might even adjust the course a little. It might even be that money could be saved when it might be concluded that some (or all) of those pieces of marketing collateral may not even be needed. Imagine the smile on the CFO's face when they realised they dodged a bullet.